Loss of the insulating winter coat through attempts to rid the moose of winter tick increases the risk of hypothermia in winter.. , In the Midwest U.S., moose are primarily limited to the upper Great Lakes region, but strays, primarily immature males, have been found as far south as eastern Iowa. Males and females are sexually mature at two years of age but full growth potential isn't reached until 4 or 5 years of age. Il possède un nez large, une petite queue, de longues pattes, un cou assez court, des sabots élargis et palmés. Moose are not known to have good eye sight. Moose populations are stable at 25 calves for every 100 cows at 1 year of age. Like its relatives, Odocoileus and Capreolus, the genus Alces gave rise to very few species that endured for long periods of time. They strip trees and shrubs of their bark and rub their foreheads and preorbital glands into the bare spot to advertise their presence to the opposite sex. Birds, carnivores and rodents eat dropped antlers as they are full of protein and moose themselves will eat antler velvet for the nutrients. ", "Rapid Climate Changes Turn North Woods into Moose Graveyard", "Climate Change Is Killing New England's Moose. forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality. (10–11 months)This yearling was probably recently chased away by its pregnant mother.  However, the minor average temperature increase of 0.83–1.11 °C (1.5–2 °F), over the last 100 years, has resulted in milder winters that induce favorable conditions for ticks, parasites and other invasive species to flourish within the southern range of moose habitat in North America. Pp. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. European rock drawings and cave paintings reveal that moose have been hunted since the Stone Age. Their long legs and bone structure suggest an animal that was adapted to running at high speeds over rough terrain.. Pp. In a collision, the impact crushes the front roof beams and individuals in the front seats. Moose are also strong swimmers, being known to swim up to 20 km or up to 9.5 km per hour. 141-171 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. Franzmann, A. W., LeResche, R. E., Rausch, R. A., & Oldemeyer, J. L. (1978). L'élan d'Eurasie ainsi que son proche parent, l' orignal (Alces americanus), est la plus grande espèce de cerf vivant et se reconnaît facilement aux épaules bosselées, au museau large et surplombant, au rabat de la peau et des longs poils qui pendent sous la gorge. They also have a tough tongue, lips and gums, which aid in the eating of woody vegetation. Fall av human oftalmomyiasis från Dalarna och sydöstra Finland redovisas (summary)", "What To Do About Aggressive Moose, Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game", Female moose moans provoke bull fights, females have more choice in picking mates, concludes Idaho state university study, "Health and Wellness Public Health Advisory / Hunters and wildlife diseases (05/09/16)", Traffic Management for a Sustainable Environment, "Railroad takes steps to reduce moose crashes", More wildlife fencing to be installed on Route 7 in 2008, "Highway Driving Conditions – Department of Transportation and Works", "Moose detection lights being removed, 'not effective' for N.L. A demonstration project, Highway 7 between Fredericton and Saint John, which has one of the highest frequencies of moose collisions in the province, did not have these fences until 2008, although it was and continues to be extremely well signed. Morphological and behavioral adaptations of moose to climate, snow, and forage. Moose aggressively defend themselves and their young with their robust antlers and sharp hooves. Habitat relationships. Moose–train collisions were more frequent in winters with above-average snowfall. Kevin Jackson, 2009, Moose, Reaktion Books. Occasionally, a wolf may immobilise a moose by biting its sensitive nose, the pain of which can paralyze a moose. One researcher estimated that the Swedish moose population contributed 300,000 metric tons of feces each year to the land. In North America, the moose range includes almost all of Canada (excluding the arctic and Vancouver Island), most of Alaska, northern New England and upstate New York, the upper Rocky Mountains, northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, By the early 20th century, the last strongholds of the European moose appeared to be in Fennoscandian areas and patchy tracts of Russia, with a few migrants found in what is now Estonia and Lithuania. If the hairs on the back of the moose's neck and shoulders (hackles) stand up, a charge is usually imminent. 67. , Moose are also subject to various diseases and forms of parasitism. Its antlers were smaller than the Irish elk's, but comparable in size to those of Libralces gallicus. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day. , Both male and female moose have a dewlap or bell, which is a fold of skin under the chin. Ecology and Management of the North American Moose. ranking system or pecking order among members of a long-term social group, where dominance status affects access to resources or mates. Moose prefer sub-alpine shrublands in early winter, while bison prefer wet sedge valley meadowlands in early-winter. 1974. Ecology and management of North American moose. For larger trees a moose may stand erect and walk upright on its hind legs, allowing it to reach branches up to 4.26 meters (14.0 ft) or higher above the ground..  As an adaptation for feeding on plants underwater, the nose is equipped with fatty pads and muscles that close the nostrils when exposed to water pressure, preventing water from entering the nose. , In Ontario, Canada, an estimated 265 moose die each year as a result of collision with trains. , In extremely rare circumstances, a cow moose may grow antlers. Pp. Ecography 28, no. Moose will also communicate chemically by scent-marking trees. Moose have very acute hearing due in part to the large external surface area of their ears. , The moose became extinct in Britain during the Bronze Age, long before the European arrival in the Americas. The pits are normally found in large groups, crossing the moose's regular paths and stretching over several km. Their ears are capable of rotating independently, giving them stereophonic hearing. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado. There is, however, a Scandinavian breed of the common moose in which the antlers are simpler and recall those of the East Siberian animals. (Grubb, 2005; Hundertmark and Bowyer, 2004; Hundertmark, et al., 2002). , In 2008, two moose were reintroduced into the Scottish Highlands in Alladale Wilderness Reserve.. In the harem mating system, the largest, most dominant male attempts to herd a group of females together, which he defends from all other males. For moose in Poland, 87% of their diet consisted of trees and shrubs with the most important species being pine (Pinus silvestris), which represented 52% of their diet. The historical range of the subspecies extended from well into Quebec, the Maritimes, and Eastern Ontario south to include all of New England finally ending in the very northeastern tip of Pennsylvania in the west, cutting off somewhere near the mouth of the Hudson River in the south. Cervalces carnutorum was soon followed by a much larger species called Cervalces latifrons (broad-fronted stag-moose). Their sense of smell is exceptional due to the large surface area of their nasal cavities, which are lined with millions of sent-smelling cells.  Predation of moose calves by brown bear is also significant. These plants are rather low in sodium, and moose generally need to consume a good quantity of aquatic plants. 578-600 in S Demaris, P Krausman, eds.  For unknown reasons, the moose population is declining rapidly in the Midwest.. After the mating season males drop their antlers to conserve energy for the winter. , Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants (e.g., pond grasses, young trees and shrubs), cover from predators, and protection from extremely hot or cold weather. LeResche, R. 1974. Engan, J. , The moose proboscis is distinctive among the living cervids due to its large size; it also features nares that can be sealed shut when the moose is browsing aquatic vegetation. Among other things, the moose was proposed to be used in postal distribution, and there was a suggestion to develop a moose-mounted cavalry. "Even-toed but uneven in length: the digits of artiodactyls." Upper Midwest: Michigan estimated 433 (in its, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 22:31. The moose proboscis likely evolved as an adaptation to aquatic browsing, with loss of the rhinarium, and development of a superior olfactory column separate from an inferior respiratory column. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. , Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, which is also called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti". Dr. Valerius Geist, who emigrated to Canada from the Soviet Union, wrote in his 1999 book Moose: Behaviour, Ecology, Conservation: In Sweden, no fall menu is without a mouthwatering moose dish. Wolves typically kill moose by tearing at their haunches and perineum, causing massive blood loss. The Native Americans often used moose hides for leather and its meat as an ingredient in pemmican, a type of dried jerky used as a source of sustenance in winter or on long journeys. (Bowyer, et al., 2003; Gaillard, et al., 1998; Wilson and Ruff, 1999), Moose are the least social species among cervids, remaining fairly solitary except during the mating season. Moose herbivory, browse quality, and nutrient cycling in an Alaskan treeline community. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements. Pp. L'orignal (Alces américanus) est un mammifère herbivore appartenant à la famille des Cervidae. Alaskan moose have been reported to successfully fend off attacks from both black and brown bears.  In collisions with higher vehicles (such as trucks), most of the deformation is to the front of the vehicle and the passenger compartment is largely spared. scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons. They are also widespread through Russia on up through the borders with Finland south towards the border with Estonia, Belarus and Ukraine and stretching far away eastwards to the Yenisei River in Siberia. Child, K. 2007. Historiquement le genre Alces était considéré comme monotypique, comprenant uniquement l'espèce Alces alces, elle-même divisée en plusieurs sous-espèces, mais aujourd'hui certains spécialistes proposent de considérer les populations d'Amérique du Nord et d'Eurasie comme des espèces distinctes dont les noms scientifiques respectifs seraient Alces americanus et Alces alces1. Alces alces, aussi connu sous le nom d'élan (en Eurasie) ou orignal (en Amérique du Nord), est une espèce de mammifères de la famille des Cervidae.Le genre Alces est … Ungulates in western forests: Habitat requirements, population dynamics, and ecosystem processes. By September the velvet is removed by rubbing and thrashing which changes the colour of the antlers. Cette conception graphique d’animal réel d’orignaux dans la nature fait un grand cadeau ou présent pour n’importe qui qui aime ou est intéressé par l’orignal, l’animal et le portrait des animaux. In northern Scandinavia one can still find remains of trapping pits used for hunting moose. In practical terms this means moose are more vulnerable in areas where wolf or bear populations were decimated in the past but are now rebounding. Traductions en contexte de "alces" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : Both E. rangiferi and E. alces also seem capable of causing disease in some other species of cervids, in addition to their natural host (Lankester and Fong, 1989). Moose are fully capable of killing bears and wolves. However, like all ungulates known to attack predators, the more aggressive individuals are always darker in color.. , If a bull moose is castrated, either by accidental or chemical means, he will quickly shed his current set of antlers and then immediately begin to grow a new set of misshapen and deformed antlers that he will wear the rest of his life without ever shedding again. These outputs can be rapidly created from a broad suite of comparative scenarios, and then saved to your unique user account for future reference and display. Female moose have an eight-month gestation period, usually bearing one calf, or twins if food is plentiful, in May or June. Kelsall, J., E. Tefler. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. Fire, logging, flooding, or glacial action greatly increase the quality and quantity of forage for moose and, ultimately, moose density. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! Ces animaux, dont les bois sont aplatis en éventail, sont les plus grands des cervidés actuels.  Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the moose's only known marine predator as they have been known to prey on moose swimming between islands out of North America's Northwest Coast, however, there is at least one recorded instance of a moose preyed upon by a Greenland shark. 296-340 in C Zabel, R Anthony, eds. having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect. (Kie, et al., 2003; Kielland and Bryant, 1998; Molvar, et al., 1993; Persson, et al., 2000), Moose are affected by several diseases and parasites. Initially, the males assess which of them is dominant and one bull may retreat, however, the interaction can escalate to a fight using their antlers. In 2002, populations of the United States and Canada were estimated at 1,000,000.  The males are polygamous and will seek several females to breed with. Such a division has caused confusion and does not represent the latest genetic research. However, the rest of its skull structure, skeletal structure and teeth bore strong resemblance to those features that are unmistakable in modern moose, indicating a similar diet. L. gallicus had many striking differences from its modern descendants. Predicting locations of moose-vehicle collisions in Sweden. In hot weather, moose are often found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds. Le mâle possède des bois larges et aplatis, ainsi qu'un repli de peau sous le menton appelé cloche ou fanon. An Alaskan moose also holds the record for the heaviest weight at 36 kilograms (79 lb).. humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. An Alces alces in nahilalakip ha genus nga Alces, ngan familia nga Cervidae. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.  In North America, moose (A. a. americanus) antlers are usually larger than those of Eurasian moose and have two lobes on each side, like a butterfly. This differs from the Megacerines, such as the Irish elk, which evolved many species before going extinct. offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) Le genre Alces était autrefois considéré comme étant monotypique, mais des études récentes ont démontré que l'orignal et l'élan d'Eurasie sont en fait deux espèces bien distinctes Forest disturbed by fire and logging promotes the growth of fodder for moose. An electronic "moose detection system" was installed on two sections of the Trans-Canada Highway in Newfoundland in 2011, but the system proved unreliable and was removed in 2015. 2007. They are not territorial. However, by the 1870s, only a handful of moose existed in this entire region in very remote pockets of forest; less than 20% of suitable habitat remained. "Moose disease", fatal to moose, is caused by a brainworm which most commonly infects white-tailed deer. (On-line). Changes in the relationship between palmate and cervine antlers in moose in southeastern Norway. , In Sweden, a road will not be fenced unless it experiences at least one moose accident per km per year. (Geist, et al., 2008; Henttonen, et al., 2008; Novak, 1999; Timmermann, 2003), Alces, which has been traditionally classified as a monotypic genus, has been recently divided into two species by some researchers: the European species, Alces alces, and the North American species, Alces americanus. makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds. , In the Canadian province of New Brunswick, collisions between automobiles and moose are frequent enough that all new highways have fences to prevent moose from accessing the road, as has long been done in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. 173-221 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. It is now known that moose in Central Asia (Yakutia) also have 70 chromosomes and share mitochondrial DNA halotypes with European and North American moose. Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web. Pp. Young have a reddish brown pelage and are not spotted like other young in the deer family. In the Americas, moose injure more people than any other wild mammal, and worldwide, only hippopotamuses injure more. The moose's body weight per surface area of footprint is about twice that of the caribou's. swa. At that age females are at their reproductive peak and males have the largest antlers. Can Hunters Save Them? Lundmark, Caroline. Alces: A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose 55 (2019): 1-12. Thus, moose select habitat on the basis of trade-offs between risk of predation, food availability, and snow depth. "The Nasal Complex of a Semiaquatic Artiodactyl, the Moose (Alces alces): Is it a Good Evolutionary Model for the Ancestors of Cetaceans?." Also, moose cows may not calve without adequate summer weight gain.  The size and growth rate of antlers is determined by diet and age; symmetry reflects health.  In winter, moose are often drawn to roadways, to lick salt that is used as a snow and ice melter. Following Bergmann's rule, population in the south (A. a. cameloides) usually grow smaller, while moose in the north and northeast (A. a. buturlini) can match the imposing sizes of the Alaskan moose (A. a. gigas) and are prized by trophy hunters.  Eastern tribes also valued moose leather as a source for moccasins and other items. Few moose live past 15 years in the wild, although one cow was recorded to have lived to the age of 22. Mammalian Species, 154: 1-7. , The tail is short (6 cm to 8 cm in length) and vestigial in appearance; unlike other ungulates the moose tail is too short to swish away insects.. Telfer, Edmund S., and John P. Kelsall. Il s'y trouvait en faible densite et representait une biomasse de nourriture ongulee inferieure a celle etudiee ailleurs en Amerique du Nord. National Science Foundation Le visage des mâles s’assombrit dès la mi-août, alors que le taux de testostérone augmente en prévision de la prochaine saison d’accouplement. The hoof of the fourth digit is broader than that of the third digit, while the inner hoof of the third digit is longer than that of the fourth digit. Nous avons étudié la densité hivernale et la taille du territoire du loup (Canis lupus) aux Yukon Flats, en Alaska, où l’orignal (Alces alces) était la seule proie ongulée. The USSR and Poland managed to restore portions of the range within its borders (such as the 1951 reintroduction into Kampinos National Park and the later 1958 reintroduction in Belarus), but political complications limited the ability to reintroduce it to other portions of its range. This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation. Moose are the only deer that are capable of feeding underwater. In North America, moose have been observed to consume as many as 221 plant species and genera, and in Russia 355, although only a select few comprise a significant portion of their diet. Some scientists, such as Adrian Lister, grouped all the species into one genus, while others, such as Augusto Azzaroli, used Alces for the living species, placing the fossil species into the genera Cervalces and Libralces. These moose were brought from Chukotka, home to the largest moose on the planet. The earliest known species is Libralces gallicus (French moose), which lived in the Pliocene epoch, about 2 million years ago. 303-335 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. Zoology 112, no. Moose can affect the rate of nutrient cycling, floral composition, rate of forest succession, and biological diversity of a forest. Antler growth is "nourished by an extensive system of blood vessels in the skin covering, which contains numerous hair follicles that give it a 'velvet' texture. a species whose presence or absence strongly affects populations of other species in that area such that the extirpation of the keystone species in an area will result in the ultimate extirpation of many more species in that area (Example: sea otter). An all-white color phase is rare. Population distribution, density, and trends. De Bord, D. 2009. Live weights of males range from 360 to 600 kg with lengths from 2.4 to 3.1 m. Females range from 270 to 400 kg with lengths 2.3 to 3.0 m. The largest subspecies of moose, Alces alces gigas, occurs in Alaska with a maximum weight of 771 kg for a male and 573 kg for a female. 247-273 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. When they have leant upon them, according to their habit, they knock down by their weight the unsupported trees, and fall down themselves along with them.. Within these forests, they prefer the early successional stage, where forage is in abundance due to disturbance. Like its descendants, it inhabited mostly northern latitudes, and was probably well-adapted to the cold. Once they reach adulthood, their chances of survival are high. This encroachment by deer on moose habitat brought moose into contact with previously unfamiliar pathogens, including brainworm and liver fluke, and these parasites are believed to have contributed to the population decline of moose.. breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. , Like any wild animal, moose are unpredictable. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are roughly 3,900 years old.  Males will fight for access to females. 931-964 in G Feldhamer, B Thompson, J Chapman, eds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42: 371-382. This is bigger than even the Irish elk (megacerine), which was 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) tall at the shoulders. Moose are crepuscular by nature, being most active at sunrise and sunset. Ye un … A moose that has been harassed may vent its anger on anyone in the vicinity, and they often do not make distinctions between their tormentors and innocent passers-by. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado. Waray hini subspecies nga nakalista. "Evolution of the proboscis in the moose, Alces alces: Evidence from Morphology and Ecology." 403-439 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. Genetics, evolution, and phylogeography of moose. Alces, 40: 103-122. Cette espèce est aujourd’hui un des plus grands cervidés actuels. Moose also require access to mineral licks, safe places for calving and aquatic feeding sites. At present in Poland, populations are recorded in the Biebrza river valley, Kampinos, and in Białowieża Forest. HABITAT: Forêts boréales et subarctiques This is most likely the time at which the species migrated from the Eurasian continent to North America. Rocky Mountain states: Wyoming is said to have the largest share in its 6-state region, and its Fish and Game Commission estimated 7,692 in 2009. Keller, Anna, Marcus Clauss, Evelyne Muggli, and Karl Nuss.  Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are also known to prey on moose of various sizes and are the only predator besides the wolf to attack moose both in Eurasia and North America. Eventually, in North America the wapiti became known as an elk while the moose retained its Anglicized Native-American name. Pp. The state agency in charge of railroad infrastructure (Jernbaneverket) plans to spend 80 million Norwegian kroner to reduce collision rate in the future by fencing the railways, clearing vegetation from near the tracks, and providing alternative snow-free feeding places for the animals elsewhere. Moose d'Alaska - Alces Alces Le moose d'Alaska est un mammifère appelé élan en Europe ou orignaux au Canada. Accessed January 10, 2021 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Alces_alces/. Past, present and future moose management and research in Alaska. Moose collisions have prompted the development of a vehicle test referred to as the "moose test" (Swedish: Älgtest, German: Elchtest). Adult females have an average survival of 95%. Molvar, E., R. Bowyer, V. Van Ballenberghe. November 16, 2008 Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press. Since 1963, the program has continued at Kostroma Moose Farm, which had a herd of 33 tame moose as of 2003. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum. The palmation appears to be more marked in North American moose than in the typical Scandinavian moose. It is an appropriate name because moose primarily browse upon the stems and twigs of woody plants in the winter and the leaves and shoots of deciduous plants in the summer. 125-139 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. Hundertmark, K. 2007. , Moose avoid areas with little or no snow as this increases the risk of predation by wolves and avoid areas with deep snow, as this impairs mobility. (9 months)This calf is almost ready to leave its mother. This material is based upon work supported by the With no upper incisors or canines, moose must nip off plants between a bony upper palate and their lower incisors. Ecology and management of large mammals in North America. ", "Ticks are killing 70 percent of moose calves across Maine, N.H.", "Moose in New England face grisly deaths from tick infestations", "Ticks devastate Maine, N.H. moose populations", "Elks Make a Dangerous Comeback in Germany", Alces alces (Eurasian Elk, Moose, Elk, Eurasian Moose, European Elk, Siberian Elk), Wayward elk ‘Knutschi’ found dead – The Local, "Re-Introducing Moose to the Glen – Moose – BBC", "Deer and deer farming – Introduction and impact of deer", "Hairs move NZ moose out of realm of Nessie", "Newfoundland's 120,000 moose are descended from just four that were introduced a century ago", "DNRE Survey Results Indicate Approximately 433 Moose in Western Upper Peninsula", "Moose Management and Research Plan Update", "Big Game Hunting: Moose Season Information", "Põtrade arvukust tahetakse oluliselt vähendada. Kamchatka now regularly is responsible for the largest trophy moose shot around the world each season. Il y a des millions d'années, les tout premiers cervidés ne vivaient qu'en Asie. Dussault, Christian, Jean‐Pierre Ouellet, Réhaume Courtois, Jean Huot, Laurier Breton, and Hélène Jolicoeur. Pulliainen, E. 1974. living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World.  Moose are very limber animals with highly flexible joints and sharp, pointed hooves, and are capable of kicking with both front and back legs. Beyond the incalculable cost in terms of human life, moose collisions cause significant property damage, escalate insurance premiums, can cause a local moose population to decline and reduce recreational opportunities. Miquelle, D., E. Smirnov, H. Quigley, M. Hornocker, E. Nikolaev, E. Matyushkin. In Eurasia, Alces alces have a range on the west from Scandinavia, Poland and southern Czech Republic to Siberia (Russia) in the east. However, as the Roman era faded into medieval times, the beast slowly disappeared: soon after the reign of Charlemagne, the moose disappeared from France, where its range extended from Normandy in the north to the Pyrenees in the south. Naturaliste Canadien, 101: 379-392.  Newfoundland and Labrador recommended that motorists use caution between dusk and dawn because that is when moose are most active and most difficult to see, increasing the risk of collisions. The lower prong of this fork may be either simple, or divided into two or three tines, with some flattening. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Females seek secluded sites to give birth to young and remain isolated until the calves are weaned. Moose can become severely infested with winter ticks and death can sometimes result in winter as a result of blood loss and nutritional stress. Their large bodies, inability to sweat, and the heat produced by fermentation in their guts mean they cannot tolerate temperatures exceeding 27 degrees Celsius for long. There is also the achlis, which is produced in the land of Scandinavia; it has never been seen in this city, although we have had descriptions of it from many persons; it is not unlike the moose, but has no joints in the hind leg.  The word "elk" remained in usage because of its existence in continental Europe; however, without any living animals around to serve as a reference, the meaning became rather vague to most speakers of English, who used "elk" to refer to "large deer" in general. Bears are common predators of moose calves and, rarely, adults. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.