Cistercians honour him as the founder of the order because of the widespread activity which he gave to the order.[13]. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 – 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. Biografie. He had a spe­cial de­vo­tion to the Blessed Vir­gin, and there is no one who speaks more sub­lime­ly of the Queen of Heav­en. The influence of the Abbot of Clairvaux was soon felt in provincial affairs. Aleth’s death, in 1107, so affected Bernard that he claimed that this is when his “long path to complete conversion” began. For this, he was offered, and he refused, the archbishopric of Milan. Aliases: Św. 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He then went to Aquitaine where he succeeded for the time in detaching William X, Duke of Aquitaine, from the cause of Anacletus.[5]. Early life and career Germany had decided to support Innocent through Norbert of Xanten, who was a friend of Bernard's. author of “henry viii. Conrad III of Germany and his nephew Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard. Alert. Another time, while he slept in an inn, a prostitute was introduced naked beside him, and he saved his chastity by running. Introduction and notes by F … St. Bernard of Clairvaux (feast day is August 20th) Bernard struggled and learned to live with the inevitable tension created by his desire to serve others in charity through obedience and his desire to cultivate his inner life by remaining in his monastic enclosure. He decided in favour of Innocent II. At the solicitation of William of St. Thierry, Bernard defended the order by publishing his Apology which was divided into two parts. "[20], When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. His influence led Alexander III to launch reforms that led to the establishment of canon law. He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. The next day, after Bernard made his opening statement, Abelard decided to retire without attempting to answer. Malachy died at Clairvaux in 1148. abbot president of the english benedictine congregation . vicar of stalisfield. His texts are prescribed readings in Cistercian congregations. He was plagued most of his life by impaired health, which took the form of anemia, migraine, gastritis, hypertension, and an atrophied sense of taste. [4] William yielded and the schism ended. He was the hardest for Bernard to convince. Some of these, at the command of Innocent II, took possession of Tre Fontane Abbey, from which Eugene III was chosen in 1145. Believing himself at last secure in his cloister, Bernard devoted himself with renewed vigour to the composition of the works which won for him the title of "Doctor of the Church". Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The movement found an ardent and powerful advocate in Peter Abelard. [18][19] Others followed his example and he and his helpers were supposedly still producing crosses as night fell. To many, St. Bernard is known as the Mellifluous … Pope Innocent II died in the year 1143. Abelard continued to press for a public debate, and made his challenge widely known, making it hard for Bernard to decline. Bernard took his time in terminating his domestic affairs and in persuading his brothers and some 25 companions to join him. francis aidan gasquet, d.d. On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism arose in the church. [13], News came at this time from the Holy Land that alarmed Christendom. Under pressure from his ecclesiastical superiors and his friends, notably the bishop and scholar William of Champeaux, he retired to a hut near the monastery and to the discipline of a quack physician. L’Amour de Dieu et La Grâce et le Libre Arbitre | Bernard de Clairvaux | download | B–OK. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [13] Bernard considered it his duty to send an apology to the Pope and it is inserted in the second part of his "Book of Considerations." Download books for free. In May of that year, the pope, supported by the army of Lothair III, entered Rome, but Lothair III, feeling himself too weak to resist the partisans of Anacletus, retired beyond the Alps, and Innocent sought refuge in Pisa in September 1133. S-a născut într-o familie de nobili din nord estul ținutului Bourgogne în localitatea Fontaine, lângă Dijon. St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church is a medieval Spanish monastery cloister which was built in the town of Sacramenia in Segovia, Spain, in the 12th century but dismantled in the 20th century and shipped to New York City in the United States. Deputations of the bishops of Armenia solicited aid from the pope, and the King of France also sent ambassadors. Bernard of Clairvaux, saint, ascetic, founder of numerous abbeys and crusade preacher, was a powerful man of the Church and a 12th century trailblazer. In the meantime Cluny established a reform, and Abbot Suger, the minister of Louis VI of France, was converted by the Apology of Bernard. Bernard of Clairvaux was one of the most interesting and influential people of his time. The first to die was Suger in 1152, of whom Bernard wrote to Eugene III, "If there is any precious vase adorning the palace of the King of Kings it is the soul of the venerable Suger". The zeal of Bernard extended to the bishops, the clergy, and lay people. Bernard de Clairvaux. St. Bernard of Clairvaux is clearly one of the greatest preachers of all time. [9], Again reproaches arose against Bernard and he was denounced, even in Rome. Bernard de Clairvaux: Sermons Divers. Bernard was only nineteen years of age when his mother died. [6] His father and all his brothers entered Clairvaux to pursue religious life, leaving only Humbeline, his sister, in the secular world. [13] Bernard sent him, at the pope's own request, various instructions which comprise the Book of Considerations, the predominating idea of which is that the reformation of the Church ought to commence with the sanctity of the pope. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the crusaders, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. Bernard died at the age of 63, after 40 years as a monk. He then found Radulphe in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery.[21]. selected, with a preface, by. [28] He was the first Cistercian monk placed on the calendar of saints and was canonized by Alexander III 18 January 1174. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent. Bernard's entry at Catholic Encyclopedia This page … He wrote at this time his sermons on the Song of Songs. St Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter Abelard. [8] In 1118 Trois-Fontaines Abbey was founded in the diocese of Châlons; in 1119 Fontenay Abbey in the Diocese of Autun; and in 1121 Foigny Abbey near Vervins, in the diocese of Laon. Bernard had observed that when lectio divina was neglected monasticism suffered. Bernard's influence was soon felt in provincial affairs. Louis VI convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes, and Bernard, summoned there by consent of the bishops, was chosen to judge between the rival popes. This led for a time to the exaltation of human reason and rationalism. Cardinal Harmeric, on behalf of the pope, wrote Bernard a sharp letter of remonstrance stating, "It is not fitting that noisy and troublesome frogs should come out of their marshes to trouble the Holy See and the cardinals."[4]. Four brothers, an uncle, two cousins, an architect, and two seasoned monks under the leadership of Bernard endured extreme deprivations for well over a decade before Clairvaux was self-sufficient. This caused the pope to be recognized by all the great powers. [7] Bernard's testimony was so irresistible that 30 of his friends, brothers, and relatives followed him into the monastic life. Deus vult! " [12] Bernard lobbied the prelates on the evening before the debate, swaying many of them to his view. Local system number: Bernard is Dante Alighieri's last guide, in Divine Comedy, as he travels through the Empyrean. That was St. Bernard of Menthon, not the Cistercian reformer of the 12 th Century. The abbey became too small for its members and it was necessary to send out bands to found new houses. [6], Bernard was instrumental in re-emphasizing the importance of lectio divina and contemplation on Scripture within the Cistercian order. Henry of Lausanne, a former Cluniac monk, had adopted the teachings of the Petrobrusians, followers of Peter of Bruys and spread them in a modified form after Peter's death. Bernard de Clairvaux (cunoscut și ca Sfântul Bernard, n. 1091, d. 21 august 1153, Clairvaux) a fost un călugăr și conte de Châtillon. [19], Unlike the First Crusade, the new venture attracted royalty, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France; Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders; Henry, the future Count of Champagne; Louis's brother Robert I of Dreux; Alphonse I of Toulouse; William II of Nevers; William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey; Hugh VII of Lusignan, Yves II, Count of Soissons; and numerous other nobles and bishops. The need for healthy theological discussion in the Church. This he did, but when the campaign continued, Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problems in person. Overview of France's Clairvaux Abbey, with a discussion of the Cistercian order. Conrad III and his son Henry died the same year. He then went with him into Italy and reconciled Pisa with Genoa, and Milan with the pope. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) was a French theologian. Leclercq"S, . Towards the end of 1134, he made a second journey into Aquitaine, where William X had relapsed into schism. Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint (1090 or 91-1153), Mary Blessed Virgin, Saint, Malachy Saint (1094?-1148), Jesus Christ, Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint (1090 or 1091-1153), Bernard, de Clairvaux Saint (1090 ou 91-1153), Bridget of Sweden, Saint (ca. But an even greater show of support came from the common people. Associate Professor of Education, University of Windsor, Ontario. [19] The full text has not survived, but a contemporary account says that "his voice rang out across the meadow like a celestial organ"[19]. At the age of 22, while Bernard was at prayer in a church, he felt the calling of God to enter the monastery of Cîteaux. Bernard died at age sixty-three on 20 August 1153, after forty years spent in the cloister. [4], Towards the close of the 11th century, a spirit of independence flourished within schools of philosophy and theology. Illustrious persons were buried at Clairvaux in the livery of the poor of Christ, among them Henry of France, brother of King Louis VII; Alexander of Cologne, who was later one of the successors of St. Bernard of Clairvaux; Henry Murdach who became Abbot of Vauclair and later Archbishop of York; Philip, Archdeacon of Liège, etc. By 1119 the Cistercians had a charter approved by Pope Calixtus II for nine abbeys under the primacy of the abbot of Cîteaux. In June 1145, at the invitation of Cardinal Alberic of Ostia, Bernard traveled in southern France. He could claim a form of higher knowledge that is the complement and fruition of faith and that reaches completion in prayer and contemplation. [6] In 1113 Stephen Harding had just succeeded Alberic as third Abbot of Cîteaux when Bernard and thirty other young noblemen of Burgundy sought admission into the monastery. Anacletus died of "grief and disappointment" in 1138, and with him the schism ended. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It was here, also, that he produced a small but complete treatise on Mariology (study of doctrines and dogmas concerning the Virgin Mary), “Praises of the Virgin Mother.” Bernard was to become a major champion of a moderate cult of the Virgin, though he did not support the notion of Mary’s Immaculate Conception. Both the Henrician and the Petrobrusian faiths began to die out by the end of that year. Bernard had a great taste for literature and devoted himself for some time to poetry. Bernard of Clairvaux (French saint, Cistercian abbot, and writer, 1090-1153) During his youth, he did not escape trying temptations and around this time he thought of retiring from the world and living a life of solitude and prayer. He traveled to Sicily in 1137 to convince the king of Sicily to follow Innocent. Leclercq, "Les Ecrits de Geoffrod'Auxerre,y Revue" bénédictine 62 [1952] 282). Hasten then to expiate your sins by victories over the Infidels, and let the deliverance of the holy places be the reward of your repentance." ... De Maria numquam satis. He protested his profound esteem for the Benedictines of Cluny whom he declared he loved equally as well as the other religious orders. Bernard, informed of this by William of St-Thierry, is said to have held a meeting with Abelard intending to persuade him to amend his writings, during which Abelard repented and promised to do so. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Bernard expanded upon Anselm of Canterbury's role in transmuting the sacramentally ritual Christianity of the Early Middle Ages into a new, more personally held faith, with the life of Christ as a model and a new emphasis on the Virgin Mary. The death of his contemporaries served as a warning to Bernard of his own approaching end. [4], The beginnings of Clairvaux Abbey were trying and painful. She, with the consent of her husband, soon took the veil in the Benedictine nunnery of Jully-les-Nonnains. There is not left one man to seven women, and everywhere there are widows to still-living husbands. At the General Audience on Wednesday, 4 November [2009], in St Peter's Square, the Holy Father spoke of the theological controversy between St Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter Abelard and of what we can learn from it today. [12] Bernard then denounced Abelard to the pope and cardinals of the Curia. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. [b] In 1137, he was again forced to leave his solitude by order of the pope to put an end to the quarrel between Lothair and Roger of Sicily. It was here that his first writings evolved. In 1115 Harding appointed him to lead a small group of monks to establish a monastery at Clairvaux, on the borders of Burgundy and Champagne. He had a special devotion to the Virgin Mary, and he later wrote several works about the Queen of Heaven.[4]. He is a Roman Catholic saint. His two successors, Pope Celestine II and Pope Lucius II, reigned only a short time, and then Bernard saw one of his disciples, Bernard of Pisa, and known thereafter as Eugene III, raised to the Chair of Saint Peter. Bernard z Clairvaux, Saint Bernard de Clairvaux, ברנר מקלרבו, ברנרד מקלרבו, ברנר מקלרוו, 베르나르두스, 클레르보의 베르나르도, 클레르보의 성 베르나르도, 클레르보의 베르나르두스, San Bernardo de Claraval, Bernardo de Fontaine, Bernardo, San Bernardo di … Hasten to appease the anger of heaven, but no longer implore its goodness by vain complaints. There is perhaps no better way to enjoy Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux than by booking a nearby Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux hotel! All Public Masses in the Archdiocese of Toronto Are Temporarily Cancelled. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, the second founder of the Cistercians, the Mellifluous Doctor, the apostle of the Crusades, the miracle-worker, the reconciler of kings, the leader of peoples, the counselor of popes! Other websites. It was a time when Bernard was experiencing what he apprehended as the divine in a mystical and intuitive manner. For this reason, the Black Monks attempted to make it appear that the rules of the new order were impracticable. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. Bernard found it expedient to dwell upon taking the cross as a potent means of gaining absolution for sin and attaining grace. 1303-1373), Eugene III Pope (d. 1153), Benedict Saint, Abbot of Monte Cassino, Malachy Saint, Marie Sainte Vierge, Victor Saint, Confessor His success in his studies won the admiration of his teachers. [6], The little community of reformed Benedictines at Cîteaux, which had so profound an influence on Western monasticism, grew rapidly. As in the First Crusade, the preaching led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Radulphe was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Radulphe claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. At the 800th anniversary of his death, Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical on Bernard, Doctor Mellifluus, in which he labeled him "The Last of the Fathers." Pope Benedict XVI. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, (born 1090, probably Fontaine-les-Dijon, near Dijon, Burgundy [France]—died August 20, 1153, Clairvaux, Champagne; canonized January 18, 1174; feast day August 20), Cistercian monk and mystic, founder and abbot of the abbey of Clairvaux and one of the most influential churchmen of his time. [4], In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran, in which the surviving adherents of the schism were definitively condemned. Bernard was the third of seven children, six of whom were sons. Bernard later commented that Gerard was his most formidable opponent during the whole schism. Moved by his burning words, many Christians embarked for the Holy Land, but the crusade ended in miserable failure.[6]. He was also the patron of the Knights Templar. The purpose of this council was to settle certain disputes of the bishops of Paris, and regulate other matters of the Church of France. On the death of Honorius II, which occurred on 14 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church by the election of two popes, Pope Innocent II and Antipope Anacletus II. After the Christian defeat at the Siege of Edessa, the pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade. 12/26/2020 In accordance with provincial restrictions to slow the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, all in-person Masses in the Archdiocese of Toronto are temporarily cancelled. 978-90-429-3132-9. [3] In the year 1128, Bernard attended the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar,[a] which soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran. Bernard was named a Doctor of the Church in 1830. Bernard's great de­sire was to excel in lit­er­a­ture in order to take up the study of Sa­cred Scrip­ture, which later on be­came, as it were, his own tongue. Stones and trees will teach you that which you cannot learn from the masters. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 - 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians.. Christians had been defeated at the Siege of Edessa and most of the county had fallen into the hands of the Seljuk Turks. Born in what is now considered France at Fontaines near Dijon in 1090 or 1091, his father, Tecelin or Tesselin, was a knight who died in the First Crusade, as well as a friend and vassal of the Duke of Burgundy. Bernard did not reject human philosophy which is genuine philosophy, which leads to God; he differentiates between different kinds of knowledge, the highest being theological. [17] Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise. Find books Meanwhile, as Bernard’s health worsened, his spirituality deepened. The archbishop of Cologne and the archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks and asked Bernard to denounce them. They are characterized by repetition of references to the Church Fathers and by the use of analogues, etymologies, alliterations, and biblical symbols, and they are imbued with resonance and poetic genius. In 1144 Eugene III commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade[6] and granted the same indulgences for it which Pope Urban II had accorded to the First Crusade. Many letters, treatises, and other works, falsely attributed to him survive, and are now referred to as works by pseudo-Bernard. About the same time, Bernard was visited at Clairvaux by Malachy, Primate of All Ireland, and a very close friendship formed between them. Bernard of Clairvaux on the Life of the Mind, John R. Sommerfeldt, Newman Press (2004) ISBN 0809142031 ISBN 9780809142033, p. 67 „I rejoiced so greatly when I heard of your answer in the case of some who seemed to be filled with extravagant ambition Amour sacré, fin’amor: Bernard de Clairvaux et les troubadours.Philosophes médiévaux 60. On 31 March, with King Louis VII of France present, he preached to an enormous crowd in a field at Vézelay, making "the speech of his life". In 1120, Bernard wrote his first work, De Gradibus Superbiae et Humilitatis, and his homilies which he entitled De Laudibus Mariae. During the absence of the Bishop of Langres, Bernard was blessed as abbot by William of Champeaux, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, who saw in him the predestined man, servum Dei. He entered the Cîteaux community in 1112, and from then until 1115 he cultivated his spiritual and theological studies. About the same time he wrote his work on Grace and Free Will. One time he restored the power of speech to an old man that he might confess his sins before he died. Clothe yourselves in sackcloth, but also cover yourselves with your impenetrable bucklers. Overview of St. Bernard of Clairvaux's life. "[27], Bernard's theology and Mariology continue to be of major importance, particularly within the Cistercian and Trappist orders. The first abbot of Clairvaux developed a rich theology of sacred space and music, writing extensively on both. Bernard's letter to the archbishop of Sens was seen as a real treatise, "De Officiis Episcoporum." He was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, and was canonized by Pope Alexander III on 18 January 1174. Saouma, Brigitte. At the age of nine, he was sent to a school at Châtillon-sur-Seine run by the secular canons of Saint-Vorles. Returning to Molesme, he left the government of the new abbey to Alberic of Cîteaux, who died in the year 1109. 1473. Bernard’s struggles with the flesh during this period may account for his early and rather consistent penchant for physical austerities. 7 The Mystical Theology ofSaint Bernard(LondonShee: d & Ward, 1940)viii; Ulrich Köpf, Religiöse Erfahrung in der Theologie Bernhards von Clairvaux (Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck, e1980) 8J;. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of earth and heaven. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the Second Crusade he had preached, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. It is said that his mother, Aleth, exerted a virtuous influence upon Bernard only second to what St. Monica had done for St. Augustine of Hippo in the 5th century. [29] Pope Pius VIII bestowed on him the title "Doctor of the Church". Though not yet 30 years old, Bernard was listened to with the greatest attention and respect, especially when he developed his thoughts upon the revival of the primitive spirit of regularity and fervour in all the monastic orders. from the translation of the late dr. eales. He is labeled the "Mellifluous Doctor" for his eloquence. €94 Bernard considered lectio divina and contemplation guided by the Holy Spirit the keys to nourishing Christian spirituality. At his death, they numbered 343. The regimen was so austere that Bernard became ill, and only the influence of his friend William of Champeaux and the authority of the general chapter could make him mitigate the austerities. Leuven: Éditions de l’Institut supérieur de philosophie, Louvain-La-Neuve/Peeters, 2016. vii + 373 pp. [6], Many miracles were attributed to his intercession. Bernard's parents were Tescelin de Fontaine, lord of Fontaine-lès-Dijon, and Alèthe de Montbard [fr], both members of the highest nobility of Burgundy. King Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, and Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henri Sanglier, archbishop of Sens and Stephen of Senlis, bishop of Paris. James Meeker Ludlow describes the scene romantically in his book The Age of the Crusades: A large platform was erected on a hill outside the city.